In this Organisational and Behaviour in Team Management Assignment we are evaluating the different leadership style adopted by the management of different organizations. We will try to understand the reason behind each approach that is taken and how it is different from the other. We would also shed some light on the importance of motivating the employee and how this benefits both the employee and the employer. Also, success is professional environment is never for an individual but for a team and importance of team work is also discussed at length.
When an individual induces his view in an organization and shares his idea among the individual in such a way that they align themselves to the bigger object, then this phenomenon is said to demonstrate leadership. Leadership style is all about how a leader choses to enforce his principals on the people. How he gets the support of his community and mobilizes his assets is also determined by leadership style.
1.1 Discuss the developments in management.
In the current work scenario different organizations adopt different management style. The style chosen in according to the structure of the organization and the vision they are operating by. Each management technique marks the usage of different leadership style used by organizations and their effects can be summarized as follows:
- Autocratic– These are leaders who keep all the power in their hands and take the decisions independently without discussing it with others. They tell people what needs to be done. They maintain leadership by authority of reward, intimidation, threats and force. They are quick in decision making and do not entertain arguments on how things need to be done. This attitude can breed mistrust in the organization. People are more worried about their position and place in the organization. People respect the chain of command and put in more energy in protecting their sphere. There in only one way communication. But for some organizations this style works because the work gets done effectively in the scenario (Sosik & Godshalk, 2000). Work environment is stable and decisive. Hierarchy is strictly followed and everyone knows what has to be done.
- Managerial – This leadership style places leader in the shoes of the manager. They oversee the functioning across various levels of the organization and pay attention to the relationship that they have with staff in order to ensure that everything runs smoothly. Their main job is to strengthen the organizations infrastructure, systems, positions and policies. They will keep a close eye on what is happening in the organization and financial aspects too. They like to maintain the organization. The result is that managerial leadership leads to an organization that works as a well-oiled machine and is a pleasant place to work (Aronson, 2001). The relationship between staff members is friendly. There is no ambiguity about things and command flow.This attitude has one downside, the vision of the organization at times gets lost. This leads to loss of passion among the staff as they are unaware of changing needs and might fail to meet targets.
- Democratic – In democratic leadership the organization places emphasis on the well-being of its employees.They respect the power of people. They consult them during decision making and allow them to voice their opinion. Their words are valued, solicited and then final decision is made. The onus of making the final decision lies in the hand of the leader.Organization is deemed as a cooperative venture. This model makes people feel valued and important part of the process. Cordial relationships are fostered and two way communications takes place. Issues can arise if some people get miffed if their suggestions are not considered. Also in this scenario decision making is not quick and may take a lot of time.
- Collaborative – In collaborative approach the leader tries to bring all the members of the organization together. The leaders in this organization keep themselves as first among equals. They try to foster trust and teamwork among the staff. Decision making takes place by collaborative process of discussions. In this style the leader has to let go of his status and power and need of control because they would like to work by collaboration (Johnson & Klee, 2007). They want to empower the group and work on the vision that they set. This style places a lot of trust in the decision making ability of people. Hence, this leadership style leads to creation of staff that believes strongly in the goals and the vision of the organization. The notion of equality and empowered work force is strong. The philosophy of this style is to work on the organization from the grass root level. There is trust and an open working environment.
1.2 Evaluate factors from approaches discusses within this unit that support and underpin management today.
Organizations are collective units of people working together to achieve a common goal. Businesses make use of organizational theory and management theory to achieve success. Theories dictate practices and policies that can make an establishment successful, but adhering to a theory involves putting personal goals on line and entails some sacrifices too. Organizational theory is a study of organizational structure and aims at creating knowledge that helps in understanding how the organization works. If an organizational theory is followed to the boot then it might lead to some tough decisions on the management front (Hersey et. al, 1988). For example, human resource department creates some policies and procedures to ensure that the vision and goal of an organization can be achieved. But these decisions affect the working of all the employees in the organization and might face some doubts. At times an individual spends more time in adjusting to the mould that they start ignoring their duties and responsibilities. These theories might clash with the individual personal values and this might reduce the efficiency of getting the work done. These people might not agree completely with the rule and policy that the organization has in place but being a part of a well-defined structure they need to work with it and execute something which they cannot completely believe in. This dilemma can prove harmful in certain places. If one tries to put all organizational theories into practice then this might lead to certain conflicts in leadership and staff. The vision is always at a broader level and might not always be according to the individual but they agree to go by it because they are part of group. This can work only if the employee is treated with respect and is valued and their belief in policies must be strengthened. This has led to the evolution and usage of various management practices across the organizations depending upon the structure and overall goals. They can be summarized as:
- Human Behaviour Approach: aims at increasing productivity by creating and maintain good relationship with the employees. Group dynamics plays a very important role in this approach.
- Social system Approach: It is the cooperative system of management. Effort is made to understand the group behaviour. Emphasis is laid on maintain a harmonious balance between organizations goals and group aspirations.
- Socio-Technical System Approach: organization is viewed as a combination of two systems- a social system and a technical system. These systems interact to govern the overall functioning of the organization (Bolman & Deal, 1987).
- Decision Theory approach: members of the organization are considered as decision makers and responsible for solving problems. It is believed that quality of the decisions that are made affect the organization.
- Management Science approach: uses a combination of management and scientific method for running the organization. The success and interaction factor is quantified.
- Systems approach: organization is considered as a system which is made of various sub-parts which are mutually dependent.
- Contingency or Situational approach: action of an organization is based on a contingent or external factor. The organization is integrated with the environment and response is based from situation to situation (Burns & Stalker, 1961).
- Operational approaches: It is also known as Management Process Approach. It puts emphasis on doing the overall management of the organization and considers that managerial functions are common universally.
2.1 Compare the different motivation techniques used by both transformational and transactional leaders.
There are several leadership styles and each aims at motivating the employee to get the task done efficiently and achieve the vision and mission of the organization. The way this motivation varies according to the style. Each leadership style aims at motivating the employee but the approach used might be different. In autocraticstyle, by taking all the important decisions themselves managers are able to get work done at a very fast pace. They motivate employees by establishing their trust and confidence in the decision making ability of the top echelon. The employees feel safe and secure in the direction that the organization is moving into because the manager is competent and surefooted. On the other hand in democratic style, motivation is done with the help of inclusion. Employees are included in the decision making process and they are emotionally linked to the success of the organization (Jung & Avolio, 1999). Every important decision is taken by taking their opinion into consideration and hence they are closely linked to the process and take interest in things that are taking place. Collaborative leadership style motivates employees by making them feel part of an equal opportunity group. Organization is treated as group of different people working together to achieve common interest and each individual is as important as the other. This sense of equality leads to peaceful collaboration which motivates the employees to put forward their best effort. In managerial style of leadership as the main work of the leader is to manage the policies and progress of the organization, the employee is motivated by putting in place a clear vision and goals of the organization. Everyone is given a clear idea about what the organization as a group is set to achieve and what role they are to play in this. They are made aware of the benefits performing and downside of non-performance. The friendly and stress free environment that is generated in this leadership style further motivates them to perform their best (Pool, 1997).
There are several motivation theories that are prevalent across the organizations. Their main aim is to generate a work force that is enthused with positive energy and would work towards attaining the vision, mission and goal that an organization has set for it. Below is the summary and comparison between three famous motivational theories:
Maslow: He came up with the idea of need pyramid which showcased the hierarchy of needs of employees. The base of the pyramid is made up by the most basic needs and the intensity reduces as we move up. The basic physiological needs like food, shelter etc. must be met first. Unless, they are met there is no point in motivating the employee as they would not be up to it. Once this is met, employee can be motivated by giving them a sense of security. They are motivated by assuring that they are in a stable environment which can take care of them during difficult times. After this is achieved, motivation via social aspects is explored next. Positive work environment in which friendly relationship can foster motivate employees to perform better. Once a strong social network has been put in place, there comes the question of rewards. Employees need a self-esteem boost which can be given with the help of rewards and recognition. The pyramid is topped by self-fulfilment. When every need is met employee is comfortable and happy in his surroundings (Maslow, 1943).
Herzberg: Another very popular motivation theory was put in place by Herzberg. He said that putting certain aspects in place is necessary for satisfying and employee but this will not necessarily motivate them. He coined the term ‘hygiene factor’ that refers to things which must be in place so that employee is satisfied. Competitive pay package can be sighted as an example. An underpaid employee cannot be motivated at any cost. Once these hygiene factors are in place, effort can be made towards growth and self-development of the employee which will allow them learn and hence motivate them to perform (Herzberg, 2005).
Emmet:He came up with certain factors which are needed to motivate an employee. They are listed as:
- Open attitude to learn.
- Enjoying their work.
- Sense of pride in their company.
- Need to deliver their best.
- To be recognized, respected and rewarded.
If these factors are taken into account and worked upon, then employee will always be motivated and happy (Spier & McFarland, 1997).
2.2 Evaluate the benefits to both the employee and employer.
Motivation is one of the most underutilized factors by managers that can revolutionize the work place. Motivation techniques if applied carefully and successfully can inspire people to work. The mission of an organization is standard and it might not be in line with the individual goals of the people. This may cause friction and half-hearted work. With motivation technique the managers can inspire people to look at the bigger picture. They can help people to align their personal goals according to the vision of the organization. It helps them realize that this is a win-win situation. Motivation can be used as a tool to inspire people to work either individually or in groups in a manner which is efficient and effective. It is very important for the manager to understand that for every individual the motivating factor is different. If the manager is able to apply motivational technique successfully in an organization, it will lead to creation of work force which is looking in the same direction. They have full understanding of what they need to achieve and also know how to do that. The employees are emotionally attached to the success and failure of the organization. This will boost the performance of the staff which directly boosts the productivity of the organization. Motivation techniques are useful because they allow both the leaders and the staff to achieve what they want (Maslow et. al, 1970). The top tier is able to achieve the overall target and the staff is able to achieve job satisfaction, security, self-esteem and a successful career.
3.1 Discuss the behaviours and dynamics of groups.
Group refers to a collection of individuals working together to achieve a common task. They have their responsibilities and duties defined at the individual level and continuously interact with each other to achieve the final objective.
Nature of groups
When groups come into existence so does group dynamics. Group dynamics involves various techniques which give us an insight into the internal nature of the group. Information about how we can organize a group and monitor its activities to achieve a set of goals is referred to as normative views (Kernberg, 1998). Groups are broadly categorized into:
- Formal groups: Groups formed by organization to carry out a particular task. Their aim is to achieve a target and individuals in the groups are formally arranged. By giving it a formal look the group attains identity, participants get a sense of loyalty, and purpose to perform and leaders also find it easy to manage it.
- Informal groups:When people in any organization come together to create a group which is not identified at organizational level it is referred as informal group. These are people coming together to achieve some individual tasks like hobby groups, help groups etc.
Formation of Groups: the formation of groups takes place in various stages. These stages can be summarized as follows-
- Forming: initial stage. Task is understood, goal is explained, information is acquired and resources are identified and allocated. Suitable individuals are brought together and they are given time to interact and develop confidence in each other and their leader.
- Storming: When group members start interacting there will always be difference in opinion and this might lead to clashes. Individuals will challenge each other and also their task. This will allow them to understand each other better. Confrontation provides clarity about the intent of various participants (Guzzo & Dickson, 1996).
- Norming: this is the period after which conflicts have been settled. The members set some group rules and standards to be followed.
- Performing: the team starts working and starts trying to find solutions of their individual problems and also the task as whole.
- Adjourning: Once the task has been accomplished, the group will disintegrate. The participants would move to other teams in the same organization or maybe different.
Group Behaviour Issues– Some issues that need to address while group formation are:
- Group Purpose: group must be assigned a definite purpose and this process can be challenging. Groups must be asked to focus their energy in specific problem.
- Group Size: group behaviour is largely dependent group size. Larger groups need more control and formalization. The chain of command and communication process is longer and complicated in them. In contrast, short groups are easy to manage but might take longer time in some complicated tasks (McGrath, 1991).
- Task’s Nature: the purpose and objective of the group are made from the nature of the task.
3.2 Select strategies you can use to develop the group to create a high performance team.
In order to create high performing teams there are certain points that we need to keep in mind. Somen Factors that promote effective teamwork
- Diversity: an effective team embraces diversity of culture, people and talent. This attitude induces a spirit of belonging among the people. Their creativity and innovative edge is improved. This ensures faster solution to problems as team mates provide different angels and approaches and the best out of the lot can be chosen (Paulus & Yang, 2000).
- Leadership: an effective leader can manage a team with ease. He inspires them and instils in them a sense of belonging. They are allowed to voice their opinion and their suggestions are valued. Leaders also ensure that timelines are respected and tasks get done on time. They can help in making members self-confident and motivated.
- Communication: clear and open communication kills any ambiguity. It allows member to develop trust and relationship between themselves and their leaders. It also ensures that status updates, timelines and issues are propagated to everyone.
- Team Building exercise: teams are encouraged to share their experience and talk openly to each other. Team building exercise aim at bringing the team member together in fictional scenarios which help them to understand each other and develop trust relationship. Games, sports or other events provide a lighter way to achieve this.
Factors that act as barriers to effective team work:
- Less managerial involvement: If the manager does not interact with his team members and fails to motivate them, then group members will not feel energetic to achieve the target. Responsibilities might not be delegated properly and work delivery might be untimely and of bad quality.
- Poor communication: ineffective communication can be the downfall of a team. Staff members are unaware of progress or difficulty that other team members are facing. This will hinder the success of the group.
- Unclear goals: if the team is not clear upon the objective they have to achieve, they will not be able to plan their activity. Individual tasks will also not be clear and hence results will not be good. Duties will be distorted.
- Ego: ego destroys the respect that team members have for each other. If present, the group dynamics are destroyed. People will not help and support each other and this will lead to unfinished tasks (Jehn & Mannix, 2001).
3.3 Impact of technology.
Technology has revolutionized every aspect of human life and an organization or their cultures are also not left untouched. Team functioning and interaction mostly stands improved by the usage of technology. Teams include technology in their functioning to interact better and to get the tasks done faster. They need to be updated regularly to ensure that everything is up to date. Personal computers and laptops allow the groups work effectively and remain connected across the globes. Manual tasks are automated and this reduces time and increases efficiency. E mails ensure easy, safe and fast information sharing among people working in different teams which might be located across the globe so that they can work without and hindrance. Mobile Phones allow team members to communicate with each other from anywhere and anytime. Important update or information can be shared anytime. Phones are now equipped with Wi-Fi connectivity and data cards which ensure data connectivity on the go. Mails and instant messaging applications are accessible all across the world on compact devices like smart phones (McGrath & Hollingshead, 1994).
At a broader level technology helps in keeping a team together but if any of the tools are misused or used excessively for leisure purpose, it can destroy the group dynamics and might lead to delays and bad quality deliverables.
3.4 Link between motivation and team development.
A good leader is one who can inspire a group of people to come and work together. Individuals might be high performing but if they cannot work well as a team then the tasks will not be accomplished. This is where the importance of leadership and motivational techniques lies. Leaders and managers need to bring employees together and motivate them so that they can deliver their best and work in tandem with others so that all the cycles and modules work without any delay and non-performance. A motivated team would perform well without hiccups and deliver on what has been promised.
Above Organisational and Behaviour in Team Management Assignment gave us a sneak peek into the broad and varied world of management and leadership. We were able to establish the fact that success of the organization depends upon its employees and the performance of the employee depends upon their leader or the manager a great deal. The style that they use will affect the final output and hence must be chosen with utmost care. We also established the groups need to be established and managed for successful task completion and this is where the concept of motivation and leadership would be put into place as the whole process involves getting together people and making them contribute towards the greater purpose for achieving the goal set by the organization.
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